Impilo kaMagema Fuze kanye nemibhalo yakhe: Ukulandelana kwezenzakalo ngezikhathi

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English version

Impilo kaMagema Fuze kanye nemibhalo yakhe: Ukulandelana kwezenzakalo ngezikhathi

UMagema Fuze wayeyingxenye futhi ephawula ngezenzakalo eziqavile zenkathi yokuphila kwakhe. Loluhlelo lokulandelana kwezenzakalo ngezikhathi luqukethe kokubili: izenzakalo ezisemqoka empilweni kaFuze kanye nemibhalo enhlobonhlobo ayikhiqiza.

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  • c.1844

    UManawami Fuze wazalelwa eduze kwasePietermaritzburg, eKoloni laseNatali, ngemuva nje kokubunjwa kwalelokoloni ngonyaka ka-1843, elabe selidliwa ngamaNgisi ngonyaka ka-1844.
  • c. 1850/1

    Esengumfana cishe ominyaka iyisithupha kumbe isikhombisa, uFuze wayebizwa ngokuthi nguSkelemu. UTrevor Cope uma eqagula uthi cishe leligama lalivela kwelesiBhunu elithi ‘skelm’, okuyinkomba yokuthi uFuze wayengumntwana oganga gangile futhi ehlale elubalubela ukwazi ngezinto.

  • UJohn Colenso

    UFuze eneminyaka cishe engu-12 (ishumi nambili), washiya ikhaya lakubo wayoba ngomunye wabafundi esikoleni sikaBishop John Colenso, Ekukhanyeni, emzini owaziwa ngokuthi iBishopstowe. Ngawo lonyaka kwaqubuka impi yaseNdondakusuka phakathi kwabantwana basebukhosini oMbuyazi noCetshwayo bebanga ubundlalifa besikhundla sobukhosi bakwaZulu. Ngemuva kokufa kukaMbuyazi kuleyompi, omunye wabantwana, uMkhungo, wabalekela kuColenso. Leyompi yaba ngumhlahlandlela wokuthi nakuba uyise wayesadla anhlavana, uMntwana uCetshwayo abe eqala ukubamba izintambo zombuso wakwaZulu.

  • UFuze wabhala indatshana enesihloko esithi ‘Amazwi Abantu’, mayelana nokuguqukela enkolweni yobuKrestu kanye nempilo yakhe yansukuzonke yasEkukhanyeni.

     

  • UFuze wabhabhadiswa wangena enkolweni yobuKrestu. Igama elithi ‘Magema’ walethwa nguColenso. UFuze futhi wathabatha uhambo lwakhe lokuqala olubheke ezweni lombuso wakwaZulu, ehamba noColenso kanye noWilliam Ngidi. Wayenikezwe umyalelo wokuloba ngakho konke okwakwenzeka usuku nosuku.

  • Imibhalo kaFuze yansukuzonke ngezenzakalo ahlangabezana nazo ezweni lombuso wakwaZulu kanye nohambo olwalubheke khona, yashicilelwa yaba yingxenye yencwadi kaColenso esihloko sithi Three Native Accounts of the Visit of the Bishop of Natal.  Ekushicilelweni kwaleyoncwadi kwaba ngokokuqala ngqa ukuba igama likaFuze livele njengombhali.

  • UFuze wachitha izinyanga ezingu-12 (ishumi nambili) ehlezi nomndeni wakhe kulandela ukuvalwa kwasEkukhanyeni, ngenxa yengembe yamahlebezi ayethi uCetshwayo wayeceba ukulanda ngendluzula umfowabo uMkhungo owayebalekele kuColenso ngemuva kwempi yaseNdondakusuka.

  • UFuze wabuyela eBishopstowe esezosebenza njengomphathi omkhulu wokucindezelwa kwezincwadi Ekukhanyeni. Ngawo lonyaka kwashicilelwa incwadi kaColenso eyayingalesosikhathi yayingathandwa futhi ithathwa njengehlazayo, esihloko sayo sithi The Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua Critically Examined. Lencwadi yayiphonsa inselelo yokungabaza ngobuqiniso bezingxenye ezithile zeBhayibheli futhi yaqubula okukhulu ukugxekwa ngamaNgisi aphesheya kanye nalawo ayizifiki ekoloni. Ngokungaqondile kuwo ngqo, kodwa inhlokomo eyaqutshulwa yilencwadi yaba nomthelela emakholweni kaColenso, kuhlanganise noFuze. Phela uColenso wayebhale lencwadi isekelwe ezingxoxweni zakhe kanye namakholwa akhe (ikakhulukazi uWilliam Ngidi, kodwa kanye naye uFuze).

     

  • INkosi uMpande wadlula emhlabeni, wabe uCetshwayo esethatha ubukhosi.

    UCetshwayo

  • INkosi yamaHlubi uLangalibalele waboshwa ngokusolwa ngokuvukela umbuso weKoloni laseNatali. UFuze, ekanye noWilliam Ngidi, nabanye abahlali basEkukhanyeni, basiza uColenso ukuvikela uLangalibalele. UFuze waba ngumlobi walokho okwakwenzeka, waba ngumphenyi, futhi waba ngufakazi kulelocala.

    ULangalibalele

  • UFuze wasayina uhlu lwezikhalazo olwalubhalwe ngumphakathi wamakholwa aseNatali efuna incazelo ngokuba kwawo izikhonzi ngaphansi kwamaNgisi. Kusukela kulesosigameko uFuze waboshwa watoka isikhashana.

  • UFuze wahambela ezweni lombuso wakwaZulu ukuyophenya ngamahlebezi ayethi uCetshwayo wayebulala labo ababezinikela enkolweni yobuKrestu. Lapha uFuze wabamba izingxoxo ezinde noCetshwayo.

  • UFuze washicilela kwi Macmillan’s Magazine, umbhalo ngaphansi kwesihloko esithi  ‘A Visit to King Ketshwayo’, owawumayelana nokuhambela kwakhe ezweni lombuso wakwaZulu onyakeni ongaphambilini. Lombhalo wawuvikela uCetshwayo ekubhecweni kwakhe nokuhlanekezela ngokuthi wayebulala abantu ababezinikela enkolweni yobuKrestu.

  • Umbuso wakwaZulu wahlaselwa wahlulwa ngamaNgisi, wabe usungena ngaphansi kokuphathwa yiwo amaNgisi. Ngemuva kwaleyompi, ukuxhumana phakathi kukaFuze nabasebukhosini bakwaZulu baqina. UFuze wasebenzisana noColenso ukuveza obala iqhaza elabanjwa yizikhulu zekoloni ukususa uthuthuva olwaqalisa leyompi. Umsebenzi kaFuze kwakungukucindezela akhiqizwe akhiqize imibhalo kaColenso yokuhlaziya ezepolitiki.

  • “Sasingenalo ilungelo labamhlophe lokuthethwa kwamacala ethu. Sasiphathwa njengezinja.” – Kwasho uFuze ethula ubufakazi kwi Natal Native Commission ngomhlaka 5 Disemba 1881.

    Esika elijikayo ngohlu lwezikhalazo lwamakholwa lwango-1875, uFuze wabalula ukuthi lwalumayelana nokuthola amalungelo anjengalawo abantu abamhlophe. Enye yezinto empilweni yakhe ayeyikhonondela kakhulu kwakungukugxeka umthetho wekoloni wobulungiswa obabungalingani, obabubheka futhi bubandlulule ngokuthi umuntu ungowaluphi uhlanga.

  • Kulandela ukuhlakazwa kombuso wamaZulu ngemuva kokwehlulwa ngamaNgisi, uChief Zibhebhu kaMaphitha wazama ukusabalalisa ukuphatha kwakhe kuze kuyofinyelela kuhlanganise inyakatho yezwe lombuso wakwaZulu. Lokho ngokushesha kwadala ukungqubuzana phakathi kukaZibhebhu nabalandeli bendlu yasebukhosini bakwaZulu (uSuthu) kwaholela empini yombango. Ngesikhathi lolothuthuva ludlondlobala, uFuze wayesiza uMbhishobhi uColenso ukuloba besabalalisa ukwazisa ngokwakwenzeka. Kodwa ngoJuni uColenso wabe eseyadlula emhlabeni. Indodakazi kaColenso, uHarriette, ngokushesha waqhuba umsebenzi kayise wokubhala asabalalise ngezenzakalo zezepolitiki, kanye nangokuba ngumsekeli nomvikeli wendlu yasebukhosini bakwaZulu.

    UHarriette Colenso

  • NgoSepthemba umlilo wabhubhisa umshini wasEkukhanyeni wokucindezela izincwadi.  Ukusabalalisa imibhalo ephawula ngempi yamaZulu yombango kwanqamuka uFuze wasala engasenawo umsebenzi. Ngawo lonyaka iNkosi uCetshwayo wafa kulandela ukuhlaselwa kwakhe ngabalandeli bakaZibhebhu. Indodana yakhe, uDinuzulu, wenyukela esikhundleni sokuba yinkosi yamaZulu, okwalandelwa ngukuba ahlule uZibhebhu, lokho okwaba sekuba yisiphetho sempi yamaZulu yombango.

    UDinuzulu

  • UFuze wahambela ezweni lombuso wamaZulu eyobonana noDinuzulu. Lapha weluleka lenkosi eyayisencane ngokobudala, ngokuthi amaZulu ayedinga ukuphathwa yigunya elinamandla, eliyisikhondlakhondla.

  • UFuze wabuyela eBishopstowe ukuyoqhubeka nomsebenzi wokuba ngumcindezeli wezincwadi, esebenzisa umshini wokucindezela uHarriette Colenso ayesandukuwuthenga. Kwaqala phansi kabusha ukuphawula ngezenzakalo zezepolitiki ezazithinta abantu bakwaZulu.

  • Kusaqhubeka ukungqubuzana phakathi koSuthu nabalandeli bakaZibhebhu, uhulumeni wamaNgisi waseBritain wadla izwe lombuso wamaZulu.

  • Ukungqubuzana kwadlondlobala phakathi koSuthu nabalandeli bakaZibhebhu, kwaze kwafinyelela empini eyabambana eNdumu ngomhlaka 23 Juni 1888. Ngemuva kwaleyompi uDinuzulu nabanye abaholi boSuthu babekwa amacala okuvukela umbuso. NgoNovemba lapho icala labo liqalisa ukungena, uFuze wayengomunye walabo ababesiza uHarriette Colenso ngasohlangothini lokuvikela uDinuzulu.

  • UFuze waqala ukufundisa uDinuzulu noyise ababili ayeboshwe nabo Eshowe, kwaze kwaba yilapho bethuthwa beyiswa e St Helena. UDinuzulu wavunyelwe ukuba nomngcini ongumnakekeli wakhe kanye nomhumushi. Imizamo kaHarriette Colenso yokuba uFuze abajoyine eSt Helena njengomhumushi kanye nomfundisi ayibanga yimpumelelo ngoba iziphathimandla zase zize zaqasha uAnthony Daniels, umAfrika owayefunde ezikoleni zezithunywa zevangeli. UFuze wagcina esesebenza e St Alban’s College ePietermaritzburg lapho ayefundisa khona ukucindezelwa kwezincwadi. Ngawo lonyaka kwasungulwa iphephandaba Inkanyiso Yase Natal.

     

  • “Ngicela ukuba ungivumele kengiponse libe linye ku Mhlotshana ngabantu ‘abantsundu’. Izwi lokuti sing’abantu ‘abamnyama’ kambe liqiniswe nje kubantu ngala’mazwi alandelayo. Kutiwa enkosini inxa ikulekelwa ‘Bayete, wena u mnyama,’ noma injani noma injani ngobuso. Kepa u Dingane way’e bomvu, noko kwakutiwa ‘wena u mnyama’. Uma wab’etsho noyedwa ati ‘wena u bomvu,’ wab’eyakubulawa masinyane kutiwe utuka inkosi. Kutiwa umuntu obomvu kanaso isitunzi, u lula, kafani nomuntu omnyama. Ngaloko leli lizwi lokuti’umuntu omnyama’ lihle kwabakiti. Kodwa izwi lokuti abantu ‘abantsundu,’ liveza kahle umbala wetu esiy’iwo, lifanele ukutshiwo, ngoba pela si ntsundu, asi mnyama: ukuti si mnyama ku ng’umkuba nje wokutsho.” – UFuze ebhala ngaphansi kwesihloko ‘Ku Mhleli we Nkanyiso’, Inkanyiso Yase Natal, 6 Septhemba 1890.

     

  • “Inxa wena ubhekile nje kambe, uti kwoti mhlana laba bantu bevunyelwa ukuzipata, njengoba bekucela nje, bayakusenza kanjani-ke tina ‘ndhlu emnyama? Musani ukucabanga niti nizaude nifunzwa njengengane: kumbulani ukuti inyoni iyazakela. Konje abanye bakiti balibele zinkani zokupikisana, kabakuboni loko esiyiko? O! Zituta. – Fuze in ‘Ku Mhleli we Nkanyiso’, Inkanyiso Yase Natal, 18 Februwari 1892.

    “[…] leli gama elikulu eliti “ u Tixo, ” elilokhu lithandeka kubafundisi, kubelapo utixo lowo engatsho zwi ngobu Nkulunkulu, nalo futi lelo liyadukisa kwabaningi ; nakuba kuligama eselaziwa ngabaningi kambe kodwa kwakufanele liyekwe lapa sekucindezelwa incwadi entsha, kufakwe elakiti u “Nkulunkulu,” ngoba pela bati ukuyibiza le ncwadi ngeyesiZulu. Kwobonwa nini loko na.” – UFuze ebhala ngaphansi kwesihloko ‘Ku Mhleli we Nkanyiso’, Inkanyiso Yase Natal, 4 Novemba 1892.

     

  • UFuze waya eSt Helena ukuyoqhubeka nokuba ngumfundisi wokufunda nokubhala kaDinuzulu nabantwana bakhe. Ngesikhathi ekulesosiqhingi wabhala izincwadi eziningi. Phakathi kwabantu ayebhalelana nabo kwakungabaseBishopstowe eNatali kanye nesazi sezilimi saseBritain u-Alice Werner. UFuze wahlangana futhi nabantu abaningi abangama-Afrika ababevela kwezinye izingxenye zezwekazi lase-Afrika. NgokukaHlonipha Mokoena, lokhukuhlangana nalababantu yikho okwaba nomthelela kuFuze agcine esenemibono yobu Pan-Africanist (ukubheka abantu abadabuka ezwenikazi lase-Afrika njengabanokufana nokuxhumana, abangabantu banye).

  • UFuze wayesekhona kuDinuzulu eSt Helena lapho kuphuma imvume yokuba abuye ekudingisweni. UFuze wabuya noDinuzulu; umkhumbi wabo wafika eThekwini ngomhlaka 5 Januwari 1898.

  • UFuze wahlangana nesikhulu uHarry Lugg owayeyi Chief Commissioner of Native Affairs yaseNatali. Ngokuka Lugg ebhala esingenisweni sencwadi The Black People and Whence They Came yangonyaka ka-1979, uFuze ngalesisikhathi wayeseqedile kumbe esezoqeda ukubhala incwadi yakhe yomlando wama-Afrika, esethungatha usizo lwezimali ukuphumelelisa ukushicilelwa kwayo.

  • “Engikwaziyo mina ngokwokuti, umuntu angengene etwele isigqoko, engesilo i Sulumane, ngoba loko kukomba ukungahlonipi kwalowo ositweleyo; kanti ukus’etula nokusipata ngesandhla sikufundiswe yibo abelungu ukuti kungukuhlonipa. Loku-ke kwokusikumula silahlwe kude lapaya umuntu engakangeni nokungena esekude le nendhlu, kufana nomkuba osongati ngike ngawuzwa ukuti wenziwa ngamapolisa edhlala ngabantu, – zonke-ke izinto lezi ezapuma emakuba ziyakukonzela ukubulala uhlanga lwakubo; akufanele ukwenziwa ngumuntu omhlope owaziyo ukuti umuntu uyini, nokuti kasiyo into yokudhlala, njengoba etsho njalo amashingana amunyamana, awakela ngezinwele zabanye kambe.” –UFuze ebhala ngaphansi kwesihloko “Ungangeni Nesigqoko”, Ipepa lo Hlanga, 22 Meyi 1903.

  • Ngonyaka ka-1904 uFuze waphinde wasebenzela uDinuzulu, kodwa akahlalanga kade ngoba wayethi kwakungenamsebenzi wokuthi awenze. Wazama ukumangalela uDinuzulu ngokungamkhokheli iholo lokumsebenzela eSt Helena kanye nokukhokhela isikhathi esifushane ayesichithe Osuthu ebizwe nguye uDinuzulu. UHarriette Colenso wakuxazulula lokho kuphambana ngokusebenzisa eyakhe imali ukukhokhela uDinuzulu lesosikweletu ayenaso kuFuze.

  • 1906-1909

    Impi Yamakhanda yaqala ngonyaka ka-1906. UDinuzulu wahilela kulolothuthuva waboshwa ngonyaka ka-1907. Icala lathethwa lamlahla ngonyaka ka-1909.

  • Kwasungulwa i-Union of South Africa. Lokhu kwaba nomthelela wokucwasa nokuhlakaza umphakathi wamakhowa owawusafufusa. Unyaka ka-1910 yiwo futhi okwaphasiswa ngawo i-Church of Properties Act. Lokho okwalandelwa ngukudayiswa kwendawo yaseBishopstowe. UFuze nabanye ababehlala eBishopstow baphoqeka ukuba bahambe bayishiye. Cishe lesisenzakalao saholela uFuze empilweni yobumpofu.

  • UDinuzulu washona, indodana yakhe uSolomon wathatha isikhundla sokuba yinkosi yamaZulu, noma kwasekuyisikhundla esasesiphucwe amandla, sesiwumfanekiso nje ongahlukile ngokungako emakhosini amancane.

  • UFuze waqala ukubhalela Ilanga Lase Natal uchungechunge lweziqephu. Ngasekuqaleni kukaNovemba indodakazi yakhe, uNomqekelele, yabulawa ngumyeni wayo. Ngemuva kwamasonto amabili, ngo 19 Novemba, uFuze wabhala isaziso sokufa kwayo, kuso eveza ukuzisola ngokwehluleka kwakhe ikakhulukazi ngokuba ngubaba ongahlalanga nabantwana bakhe.

  • “Endulo, sisapetwe kwaZulu sasiwujabulele umBuso wakiti, kodwa ubuhle bawo kwabe ku ubudhlova nokupata kalukuni, ngoba bekuti umuntu engazi luto etuke esebulawa nje, engazi yena ukuba ubulawelwani kanti ufa nje ucetshwe abanye abapambi kwake, kumbe abafowabo; bati uyatakata, noma kumbe bati uqeda izinkomo zenkosi ngokuzihlaba njalo. […] UmBuso wanamuhla mubi ngokuket’ubuso nokubandhlulula. Ngaloko aukugcwalisi okuhle esaza seza lapa sibalekela ukubusa kwakiti ngako: ngoba uma umuntu exabene nomlungu, akuluto noma umuntu oniwe kangakanani, unecala loku exabene nomlungu. Lapa-ke ngifunyanisa ububi bomBuso wanamuhla obandhlululayo, ongafani naloko okutshiwo ngomlomo kutiwe akuketwa buso inganti wona muhle kakulu ngoba lowo owonileyo uzaubotshwa, kudhlule izinyanga noma iminyaka etile abuye akitshwe, umbone futi. Kodwa ububi bokubotshwa lapa bukona, isibotshwa siti singavama ukubotshwa singabe sisayeka ukuya ejele, kuze kungati seku ubuhle ukubotshwa kuso. Kiti, umuntu wabe ebulawa apele, kungaloko zabe zingandile izigangi nganga lapa kulomBuso esikuwo namuhla.”  – UFuze ebhala ngaphansi kwesihloko ‘Umbuso Omdala Nomutsha’, Ilanga lase Natal, 23 Agasti 1918.

  • UFuze wabhalela amadodakazi kaColenso, oHarriette no-Agnes, ekhalazela ukukhokhelwa impesheni yesikhathi seminyaka eminingi ayisebenza Ekukhanyeni. Cishe ngalesisikhathi uFuze wayesedla imbuya ngothi.

  • “Ayiko enye into bakiti ukupela ukuhlangana nokuzwana. Po! abantu bakiti bona bangaze bahluleke kakulu kangakanani inxa behlanganapi napi baponse isivivane esinjengaleso esaponswa nguNqeto inkosi yakwa Qwabe ukudhlula kwake ekupuka esuka kwelakwaZulu na? Uqinisile impela uMr. Zulu. Bekungaba yiko ukuba izwe lihlangane lonke; abakwaZulu benze inqwaba yabo, abaseNatal eyabo, eKoloni eyabo, eJozi eyabo, eFree State eyabo, amaMpondo nama Swazi. Ziti zonke lezonqwaba zibe njengesivivane leso owabe eti umuntu emunye aponse itshe elilodwa, bese kuba inqwaba engangentaba enkulu ngelanga lilinye.” – UFuze ebhala ngaphansi kwesihloko ‘Ukuhlangana ku Amandhla’, Ilanga lase Natal, 13 Februwari 1920.

  • NgoMeyi ka-1922 uFuze wabhala incwadi yakhe yokwaba amafa. Kuyo wabalula ukuthi wayeseyixolele enye yamadodana akhe eyabaleka nomkakhe omncane. Incwadi yamafa yayibalula ukuthi impahla kaFuze yayizohlukaniswa kanjani. Ngawo lonyaka incwadi kaFuze yomlando Abantu Abamnyama, Lapa Bavela Ngakona igcina ishicilelwe. Kuyo, wayekhuthaza abafundi ukuzihlela, bazakhe, futhi babhekelelane. Wayebakhuthaza ukuba baqonde ukuthi ngaphandle kokuhleleka nokusizana, ezinye izizwe zomhlaba zaziyobasebenzisa kuze kube phakade “njengomquba wezitshalo zabo”, futhi bahlale bengabantu abangenampumelelo.

    Ngasekupheleni kwalonyaka uFuze wadlula emhlabeni. Isaziso sokufa kwakhe saphuma ephephandabeni Ilanga langomhlaka 17 Novemba.

Online from: 8 Jun 2022

Revision history

Edited at 2022-06-24 11:36:47 by Henry Fagan
Edited at 2022-06-24 09:56:11 by Henry Fagan
Edited at 2022-06-13 18:12:21 by Deon Schreiber
Edited at 2022-06-13 18:11:21 by Deon Schreiber
Edited at 2022-06-10 11:55:44 by Henry Fagan
Edited at 2022-06-09 14:13:16 by Henry Fagan
Edited at 2022-06-09 14:12:43 by Henry Fagan
Edited at 2022-06-09 14:11:04 by Henry Fagan
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Edited at 2022-06-08 14:24:16 by Henry Fagan
Edited at 2022-06-08 14:24:04 by Henry Fagan
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Edited at 2022-06-08 14:22:42 by Henry Fagan
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Edited at 2022-06-08 14:15:21 by Henry Fagan