U Nongqawuse nokubulawa kweenkomo zamaXhosa

Ikholaji yemifanekiso eyenziwe nguStudio de Greef kunye noVanessa Chen weFHYA. Idibanisa imifanekiso emininzi ecatshulwe ngabanye kule nkcazo

Ibali lalenzwakazi selisaziwa kakulu emzin’ apa, nesiyikili esenzekayo ngokuteta kwayo. Ngenxa yokwaziwa kwebali eli selesuke ati elowo azityutelele eyake indawo ku Nongqause apa, asebenzise eyake ingqondo kweso sicwili, kungeko salelo. Wonke ofuna ukunyembenya into, okanye efuna ukutichita, uya eyitiye igama lokuba ngu Nongqause.

S.E.K. Mqhayi, 1912 1S.E.K Mqhayi, ‘U-Nongqause’, translated in Jeff Opland (ed.) Abantu Besizwe: Historical and Biographical Writings, 1902–1944 (Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2009), 74.

Ukuthetha namanyange

uNongqawuse wabhekiswa ngamanyange, bamgqithisela umyolelo wezinyanya. ​​Banike imiyalelo yokuba amaXhosa mawabulale iinkomo zabo batshise nezityalo zabo.

Ibali likaNongqawuse nokubulalwa kweenkomo zakwaXhosa lidla ngokuqala ngenyanga kaTshazimpuzi ka1856 kumlambo iGxarha kwindawo ngoku ebizwa ngokuba yiMpuma Koloni, eMzantsi Afrika.

Ngokutsho kweengxelo ezininzi, amantombazane amabini abizwa ngokuba nguNongqawuse noNombanda afika emlanjeni emva kokuqxotha iintaka emasimini.2 William Wellington Gqoba, ‘Isizatu sokuxelwa kwe nkomo ngo Nongqause’, Isigidimi SamaXosa (Lovedale), 1 March and 2 April 1888. For translations of Gqoba’s text, see Helen Bradford and Msokoli Qotole, ‘Ingxoxo enkulu ngoNongqawuse (A Great Debate about Nongqawuse’s Era)’, Kronos Vol. 34, No.1 (November 2008), 66-105. Alternatively, see William Wellington Gqoba, ‘Isizatu sokuxelwa kwe nkomo ngo Nongqause (The motive for the Nongqawuse cattle killing)’, in Jeff Opland, Pamela Maseko and Wandile Kuse (eds.), William Wellington Gqoba, Isizwe Esinembali, Xhosa Histories and Poetry (1873-1888), (Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2015), 460-483

Emlanjeni bafikelwe ngabantu ababini abanxibe iimpahla zesiXhosa. Oyena mdala kula mantombazana mabini – uNongqawuse – ubaqaphele njengamadoda asandul’ ukufa. Ngelixa uNombanda wayengabeva xa bethetha kwaye engababoni, uNongqawuse wayebhekiswa zezizinyange, zamgqithisela umyolelo wezinyanya.3 Nongqawuse attested to Nombanda’s inability to see or hear the two men, shades, or ancestors in her deposition taken by Major John Cox Gawler. ‘Examination of the Kaffir Prophetess Nonqause before Major Gawler’,  27 April, GH 8/35 Schedule 69 of 1858 Enclosure 2, Western Cape Archives and Record Service, Cape Town.

Banike imiyalelo yokuba amaXhosa mawabulale iinkomo zabo atshise nezilimo zabo kuba zikhuliswe kwaye zalinywa ngabo babesenzisa ubuthi . Abantu babeza kuzimela ezindlwini zabo iintsuku ezisibhozo, belindele ilanga elibomvu. Ukuba bayayilandela le miyalelo, ayeza kuvuka amaXhosa awileyo kwiimfazwe zangaphambili, awele ulwandle ukuze oyise abeLungu ababehlasele ilizwe lakwaXhosa, babagxothele elwandle.

 
Lo mfanekiso uguqulelwe ngokubanzi kwimephu epapashwe kwincwadi kaJeffrey Peires ethi The Dead Will Arise, epapashwe nguJonathan Ball Publishers
. J.B. Peires, The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle Killing of 1856-7 (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1989), 109.

Indawo Yesehlo Kweziprofeto

uNongqawuse noNombanda basuka kwindawo ababehlala kuyo besingise emazantsi kumlambo iGxarha apho badibana khona namaXhosa amabini angasekhoyo athe axelela uNongqawuse ngomyolelo wezinyanya.

Akukho ukukhuphela kwale miyalelo esuka ngokuthe ngqo kuNongqawuse okanye kuNombanda, nangona bona nabanye abohlukeneyo babegowagocwa ngamagosa obukoloniyali. Ulwazi esinalo ngesi siprofeto lwaqokelelwa ngabaphandi abanje ngoWilliam Wellington Gqoba ikakhulu kubantu abanyamezela ukubulawa kweenkomo, nabathe bachaza iimeko nemiyalelo yesi siprofeto emva koko. Kukuqonda kwabo kweziganeko esibusebenzisayo xa sijonga emva kwiimeko zesi siprofeto. Iingxelo zabo, kunye nolunye uhlobo lophando, zisivumela ukuba sijonge iziganeko ezalandela isiprofeto.

Wenza ntoni uNongqawuse?

uNongqawuse uqale waya kumalume wakhe, uMhlakaza wadlulisa ulwazi. Abazali bakhe bafa kwiminyaka ethile ngaphambili, ebudeni bemfazwe eyayingaphambili nemikhosi yaseYurophu.

Umbhali-mbali uJeff Peires ubonisa ukuba uMhlakaza wayel’ igqirha okanye itola elinempembelelo yobuKristu noNongqawuse wayebesebenza naye njengomfundi oluhlobo oluthile. UMhlakaza wakhokela uNongqawuse kwiziganeko ezalandelayo.4 J.B. Peires, The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle-Killing of 1856-7 (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1989), 61-69. Mhlakaza guided Nongqawuse through the events that ensued.

Lo mprofetikazi omtsha waya kuchazela ilali yakhe ngamava akhe kodwa wadibana nokungakholelwa nokugculelwa.5Gqoba, ‘Isizatu’. Gqoba in Opland et al, 462-3. Bradford and Qotole, ‘Ingxoxo’, 76.

Yena noMhlakaza bebengayi kuyamkela le nto. UMhlakaza wasebenzisa unxibelelwano lwakhe lwezopolitiko ukuthumela umyalezo ngesi siprofeto kuSarhili, inkokeli yamaGcaleka neyona nkokeli iphakamileyo kumaXhosa ngelo xesha.

Emva koko uSarhili uyalele igqiza elikhulu lamaXhosa abalulekileyo ukuba atyelele aba baprofeti babini ukuze babone ukuba kuqhubeka ntoni na.

uNongqawuse noMhlakaza basebenzise iqhinga elahlukileyo kweli qela labathunywa. Kunokuba basebenzise amagama kuphela njengoko babethetha nabahlali, esi sibini sikhokele igqiza ukuya kumlambo iGxarha.

Emlanjeni uNongqawuse wabayalela ukuba basele amanzi omlambo ukubonisa ubungqina bokuba babengakwenzi ubuthi. Ekuqaleni la madoda ayethandabuza. Ekugqibeleni, uDilima, unyana kaPhatho, owayeyinkokeli yamaGqunukhwebe, wagoba phantsi ukuze asele emlanjeni. AmaGqunukhwebe yayiliqela elaliwela phantsi kwegunya lenkokeli yamaGcaleka, nangona uninzi lwaluziinzalelwane zamaKhoi.

Abanye balandela ukhokelo lukaDilima. Umntu ngamnye wasela laza eli qela ladlulela kunxweme olukufutshane. Ezinye iinguqulelo zeli bali zithi la madoda ayenxaniwe kwaye yayingawo awacela ukusela amanzi omlambo.

Kuthe xa uNongqawuse ebakhokelela emlonyeni womlambo ekukhanyeni okunciphayo, itheko liqwalasele oko kwakubonakala ngathi yimifanekiso ewela ulwandle, phakathi kwezandi zokuntlitheka kwamaza namawa. Kungenxa yala mava aviwayo nabonwayo apho uninzi lweqela labathunywa beza ukukholelwa esi siprofeto.

Kute kunjalo yati intombazana kanibekise amehlo enu elwandle. Bate bakuqwalasela emazeni olwandle kwanga kuko abantu okunene, kwanga kukonya nenkunzi zenkomo, kwa nenkabi, yasisibiba esimnyama esimane sibuyabuya, sade sabuyasemka sayakutshonela kwase lundini paya emazen olwandle, baqala bakolwa ke bonke abantu.6Gqoba, ‘Isizatu’ Gqoba in Opland et al, 462.

Kuthe nje ukuba amehlo kunye nezandi zibabambe abathunywa, uNongqawuse uye uNongqawuse uye wabanika imiyalelo yakhe. Nangona kungekho ngxelo yento ayithethileyo ngokuthe ngqo, uWilliam Wellington Gqoba, owapapasha imbali yokuqala yesiXhosa ngesi siganeko, unikela le ngxelo ilandelayo:

Ziti inkosi godukani niye kuxela zonke inkomo kungabiko nto niyifuyileyo, ukuze uvuko lukauleze. Maze ningalimi, yimbani izisele ezikulu ezitsha, niyakubona sezizele kukudla okutsha. Dimbazani nenninako eziseleni niye kukalahla. Yakani izindlu ezintsha, nenze nengcango ezininzi nizenze ngobuka, nize nizavalele ezindlwini, namhla ngovuko kuba kuyakuti ngosuku lwesibozo xa upumayo umzi omhle usiza nenkosi awo u Napakade into ka Sifubasabanzi, zonke izilo zehlabati nezemilambo, nenyoka, ziyakuba zizibadubadu kulo lonke ilizwe. Ukuze nisinde zenivale ngengcango ezininzi, niqamagele ukubopelela, nilahle bonke ubuti.7Gqoba, ‘Isizatu’. Gqoba in Opland et al, 464-5.

Emva kokudibana noNongqawuse noMhlakaza, uSarhili wayalela ukuba bonke abaphantsi kolawulo lwakhe mabalandele imiyalelo wezinyanya. Ukubulawa kweenkomo nokutshiswa kwezityalo kwaqala ngenyanga kaTshazimpuzi 1856. Nangona uNongqawuse wayethe abafi baza kuvuka emva kweentsuku ezisibhozo emva kokwenziwa iimbingelelo, ukubulala nokutshisa kwaqhubeka de kwayinyanga yeSilimela ka-1857.

Ngubani onesibindi sokudela ukumkani?

Ngelixa abanye benza ngokomyalelo kaNongqawuse, abaninzi abanye abazange benze njalo.

Iinkokeli ezifana noSarhili, kwakunye noMaqoma (owesibini kulawulo lukaNgqika nomkhuluwa kaSandile), uMhala (inkosi yamaNdlambe) kunye noFadana (owayesakuba ngumbambeli-nkosi waseThembuland) basikholelwa baza basinyanzelisa eso siprofeto. Ezinye iinkokeli ezininzi zazingakukholelwa oko, njengoSandile (inkosi eyathi kamva yaba ngukumkani wamaNgqika) nomntakwabo uAnta.8Peires, The Dead Will Arise,17-20.

Kwezinye iimeko, izindlu zazihlulwe kubini. Ngomzekelo, amaGqunukhwebe ayekhokelwa nguPhatho, owayekholelwa kakhulu kwesi siprofeto. Nangona kunjalo, umlawuli wakhe wesibini, uKama, owayeguqukele ebuKristwini, wayengumntu ongakholwayo ozimiseleyo ongazange avume ukuthobela imiyalelo yesi siprofeto.

Ngokufanayo, unyana omkhulu  kaMaqoma (izibulo lomfazi wakhe omkhulu), uNamba, wayekholelwa kwesi siprofeto, ngelixa oonyana abancinci bakaMaqoma ababini, uKona noNed, abazange bakholelwe. uSandile, owayengumninawa kaMaqoma, akazange asilandele esi siprofeto ekuqaleni.

uSandile ngumzekelo wemeko yokutshintsha kweendlela abantu abajonga ngayo esi siprofeto. Wayemncinci kunoMaqoma kodwa ebengumphathi wakhe, esebenza njengenkokeli yesebe likaNgqika endlini yasebukhosini. Nangona wayekhokele amaNgqika kwiimfazwe ezintathu ngexesha lobunkokeli bakhe, kodwa ngexesha lokubulawa kweenkomo wayenobudlelwane obusondeleyo noCharles Brownlee, owayegunyaziswe ukuba amele isizwe sika ‘Gaika’ (Ngika) ngelo xesha.9Sandile is a central and sympathetic figure throughout both Charles Brownlee, Reminiscences of Kaffir Life and History and other papers by the late Hon. Charles Brownlee, Gaika Commissioner, with a Brief Memoir by Mrs. Brownlee (Lovedale: Lovedale Mission Press, 1896) and John Aitkins Chalmers, Tiyo Soga: A Page of South African Mission Work (Edinburgh: Andrew Elliot, 1878)

Ekuqaleni kokubulwa kweenkomo, uSandile wayengakholelwa kwesi siprofetho, engavumi ukulandela imiyalelo.

Wayilandela ngokukrokra imiyalelo yesi siprofeto emva kwexesha elithile emva kokucengwa nguMaqoma.10Peires, The Dead Will Arise, 234. Kodwa yayingesosihlandlo sokuqala ukuba ilungu losapho lizame ukucenga uSandile ukuba asithobele esi siprofeto. Ngaphambi kokungenelela kukaMaqoma, unina kaSandile, uSutu, wayemcengile ukuba ayilandele imiyalelo yesi siprofeto ngethemba lokuba angahlangana kwakhona nomyeni wakhe ongasekhoyo uKumkani uNgqika.11Peires, The Dead Will Arise, 234.

The nation loves and is ready to die for me. The nation’s love leaves me lonely. The nation’s willingness to perish haunts me. To be loved by a nation – by crowds, means that no one enters your heart, rules, sympathises with, and understands it. I want to be loved by and to
love one man. That is love, happiness and life. The love of crowds acts on one’s heart as water acts on an over-oiled body – leaving you dry & cold.

UNongqawuse ethetha ‘nexhegokazi’ emva nje kokudibana noKreli (Sarhili) nezinye iinkosi eziliqela kumboniso wokuqala kumdlalo kaH.I.E. Dhlomo othi, The Girl Who Killed to Save.12Tim Couzens and Nick Visser (eds.), The Collected Works of H.I.E. Dhlomo (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1985), 9.

Kuko nenye inkosi, ikwela kwihashe elingwevu, igama layo ngu Ngwevu, elinye ke ngu Satana. Wonk eke umntu ongazixelanga inkomo zake uyakuba ngoka Satana, akayi kububona ubungcwalisa beyetu inkosi u Napakade into ka Sifuba-sibanzi.13Gqoba, ‘Isizatu’.

There is another chief who rides a grey horse, whose name is Grey, otherwise known as Satan. All who have not slaughtered their cattle will belong to Satan, and will not see our sanctifying king Eternal son of Broadbreast.14Gqoba in Opland et al, 466-7.

U Gqoba ebhekisa kwirhuluneli uGeorge Grey kwinqaku lakhe lika-1888. Iguqulelwe nguJeff Opland (2015).

Ngeli xesha, uluntu lwamaXhosa lwaluhlukene kubini: amagogotya (abangakholwayo kwesi siprofeto) namathamba (amakholwa wesi siprofeto). Kwabo babekholelwa kwesi siprofeto, abaninzi babenza eminye yemiyalelo kuphela. U Peires ubachaza aba balandeli  ‘njengamakholwa athambileyo’, ngoxa abo basilandela ngokungqongqo isiprofeto bahlelwa ‘njengamakholwa alukhuni’.15J.B. Peires, ‘‘Soft’ Believers and ‘Hard’ Unbelievers in the Xhosa Cattle-Killing’, The Journal of African History, Vol. 27, No. 3 (1986), 443-461.

Kuthe xa kuqhambuka ukruthakruthwano phakathi kwamaqela amagogotya kunye namathamba, ngamanye amaxesha ibikhe yaxoxiswa ngamathamba ukuba iingxaki ajongene nazo amaXhosa kungenxa yabo abangazange basilandele esi siprofetho, okanye abo ababelandele imiyalelo ngokunxalenye.

Umntu ngamnye wayebeka ityala komnye ngengxaki azifumane ekuyo amaXhosa. Oku bekuquka ilahleko enkulu yomhlaba nokutya, ngakumbi izityalo ezitshisiweyo. Kwabakho nokulahleka kwemiqondiso yozuko nobutyebi, ingakumbi kwimo yeenkomo, ezazibonelela ngenyama kunye nesikhumba, kodwa nazo bezinendima ebalulekileyo kwintlalo-ntle njengobutyebi bomtshakazi.

Ngo Silimela ka1857, besekuxhelwe iinkomo ezimalunga nama-400 000 kunye nabantu abangama-40 000 baye baphulukana nobomi babo ngenxa yokubulawa kweenkomo.

Ngenxa yokunqongophala kokutya okwalandela ukubulawa kweenkomo, ukuqhekeza nobusela kwaba yinto eqhelekileyo. Abuntu abaninzi abangakholwayo, njengoSoga (odla ngokubizwa ngokuba nguSoga Omdala owaguqukela kubuKristu kodwa ekhonza njengomcebisi ophezulu kaSandile, unyana wakhe uTiyo (owayeseNgilane ngelo xesha kodwa wabuya emva kokuxhelwa kweenkomo), noSandile, bahlehla ngakumbi emva kwemigca yobukoloniyali, bafumana ukhuseleko oluthelekisekayo kufutshane namakholoniyali amakhulu afana noBrownlee.

Uncedo (ingakumbi ukutya) oluvela kumakholoniyali kunye nabavangeli basemazweni lwalunikelwa ngokubanzi kwabo babezimisele ukuzithoba kumagunya ezopolitiko aphuma kwikomkhulu leKoloni yaseKapa eKapa. Oku kwakuthetha ukuba kwafuneka iinkokeli zamaXhosa zincame ukuzimela geqe ukuze baqinisekise ukusinda kwabantu babo.

Ukuzingela amaGqwirha

Let them kill me. Death is better than the pangs of uncertainty, than the misery of indecision. I help them because I honestly believe we shall get new cattle and grain, and that the dead shall arise. If somehow my doubts could be proved true, I would run now and tell the people that the whole prophecy is a lie, you hear – a lie. If only I knew the truth. 

uNongqawuse ethetha ‘nexhegokazi’ kumdlalo ka H.I.E. Dhlomo obizwa The Girl Who Killed to Save. 16Couzens and Visser (eds.), H.I.E. Dhlomo, 10.

Ngo-1857, ngala maxesha anzima, uNongqawuse wabanjwa yimikhosi yobukoloniyali waza wabanjwa ngumthetheli-mkhosi uJohn Cox Gawler.

KuseFort Murray (kwindawo ngoku ebizwa ngokuba nguMasipala waseBuffalo City kwiPhondo leMpuma Koloni laseMzantsi Afrika) apho kwathathwa umfanekiso wodumo kaNongqawuse noNonkosi.

uNongqawuse noNonkosi

Lo mfanekiso wathathwa ngumfundi wezithombe uMichael Durney ngesicelo sika mthetheli-mkhosi uGawler umfazi wakhe owanxibisa lamantombazana ukuze abe kumfanekiso. Lo mfanekiso ugcinwe kwiThala leeNcwadi leSizwe laseMzantsi Afrika eKapa kwiNgqokelela ye-iconographic kwiSebe leeNgqokelela eziZodwa.

Lo mfanekiso uthathwe kwi- Wikimedia Commons apho ibhengezwe kwindawo yoluntu. Ifakwe apho nge-10 kaSilimela 2006. Akucaci ukuba umfanekiso uvela phi.

Ngeli xesha uGawler wathatha ubungqina obenziwe phantsi kwesifungo kuNongqawuse. Ubungqina baphinda bathatyathwa kwabanye abaliqela, ukuquka ‘Umgula’ (okanye, uMgula), umntakwabo Nombanda. Akukho nanye kwezo zibhengezo eyayifuna eyona nto iyinyaniso yesi siprofeto. Endaweni yoko, kuye kwaphakanyiswa imibuzo ngethemba  lokufumana nokubanjwa kweenkosi ezibalulekileyo zamaXhosa eziliqela. U Gawler wabuza u Nongqawuse imibuzo emithathu kuphela xa wayebhala ingxelo yakhe:

uGawler: Ngaba uyazi ukuba ayengoobani la madoda mathathu, okanye ayevela phi, kwaye uye wawabona izihlandlo ezingaphi?

uNongqawuse: Andizange ndiwabone la madoda ngaphambili, ndingazi nokuba avela phi – ndandisoloko ndiwabona, kodwa emva kweentsuku ezininzi ngamanye amaxesha.

uGawler: Ngaba uthethile nabo ngokwakho okanye ubuxelelwe ukuba uthi wenze njalo?

uNongqawuse: Ndithethe nabo ngokwam.

uGawler: Uyamazi u-‘Nombanda’ owayehlala kufutshane nobuhlanti bakho, kwaye ukuba kunjalo chaza konke okwaziyo ngaye?

uNongqawuse: u-’Nombanda’ wayethunywe ziinkosi ukuba aze kunika ubungqina ngale nto ndiyibonileyo. Emva koko xa ndandigula nguye owayeqhuba iintetho. Wayethetha kakhulu ngaphezu kwam. Ngosuku lokuqala ehamba nam akazange ababone abantu okanye abeve bethetha. Andazi ukuba iinkosi zathini ku-’Nombanda’ kodwa kwathiwa makabe lingqina lam.17‘Examination of the Kaffir Prophetess Nonqause before Major Gawler’, 27 April, GH 8/35 Schedule 69 of 1858 Enclosure 2, Western Cape Archives and Record Service, Cape Town

Ngaxeshanye, amagunya obukoloniyali ahamba ezingela iinkosi ezithile awayekholelwa ukuba ziqhube kwaye zasandisa esi siprofeto phakathi kwabo baphantsi kolawulo lwazo. Oku kwaquka iinkokeli ezibalulekileyo ezifana noMaqoma, uAnta, uKama, uMhala kunye noPhatho. Ezinye zezi nkokeli, ezinjengoKama, zazingengabo abalandeli besi siprofeto ngokwenene, kodwa zabekwa uxanduva lokuphendulela iizenzo zabantu bazo.

Yayilishoba kwaloo nto,
Ukuqalekiswa kwesizwe sikaXhosa,
Kusuk’ umntw’ ebhinqile
Ath’ uthethile namanyange,
Uthethe naw’ ewabonile.
Azi babeye phi n’ abantu balo mhlaba?
Zaziye phi n’ izigwakumbesha?
Zaziye phi n’ izidwangube?
Bapephi n’ oogxalaba libanzi,
Ooxhentsa besombelelwa,
Bejonge kumaxhag’ eenkomo zabo?

The whole thing stank from the start,
a blight on this land of Xhosa,
for a woman to claim that the shades had addressed her,
that she’d met and conversed with them face to face!
Where were the thinkers in this land?
Where were the men of distinction?
Where were the nobles?
Where were the veterans?
Dancing to rhythmical clapping, besotted on cattle they mimed

Extract from D.L.P. Yali-Manisi’s isibongo entitled ‘Ingxaki eyasenzakalisayo’, which was orated in the car of Jeff Opland in December 1970.18D.L.P. Yali-Manisi, ‘Ingxaki eyasenzakalisayo (The problem that wrought our destruction)’, in Jeff Opland and Pamela Maseko (eds.), Iimbali Zamanyange (Historical Poems), (Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2015), 204-213.

Uninzi lwezityholo ababejongene nazo zazibubuxoki. uPhatho, njengomzekelo, wabanjwa ngenxa yobusela bemfuyo. Nangona kunjalo, ngelixa wayesenkundleni, umntakwabo wabamba awona masela, nto leyo eyabangela

ukuba ityala lingaphumeleli. Ngaphandle koku, umantyi wamakoloniyali wammangalela kwakhona uPhatho, nto leyo ebonisa ukuba ‘ubulungisa’ kunye ‘nenyaniso’ bezingabalulekanga kangako kumatyala kunenjongo yokususa abantu abakwizikhundla eziphezulu kwezopolitiko kuluntu lwamaXhosa. 

Ezi nkosi, kwakunye noNongqawuse, zafakwa entolongweni yaseRobben Island ngasekupheleni konyaka ka1858. Iinkosi zakhululwa ngo-1869 kuphela.

Abaninzi bathabatha izixhobo balwa namakoloniyali emva kokukhululwa. Akwaziwa ukuba ukhululwe nini uNongqawuse.

Umfanekiso weenkosi kunye nenkosikazi zawo bevalelwe eRobben Island. Isithombe sathathwa ngumfoti waseJamani uGustav Fritsch. Yafunyanwa kwiMyuziyam yaseRobben Island.

U Luhlu lweencwadi

Olu luhlu lweencwadi olubonelela ngoluhlu lwemithombo yoncedo malunga nokuBulalwa kweenkomo okwahlulwe ngokwamacandelo amathandathu.: 

  1. Amaxwebhu wamakoloniyali
  2. W.W. Gqoba 
  3. Izifundo zeMfundo ePhakamileyo 
  4. Izibonakaliswa Zokuyila
  5. uBuciko Bezopolitiki

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Cofa apha ukuze ufumane Luhlu lweencwadi

iiKhredithi:

Umboniso olungiselelwe ngu-Himal Ramji we-FHYA ngo-2021. Yaveliswa nguVanessa Chen ngenkxaso yebhayibhilografi evela kuHenry Fagan. Inguqulelo yesiXhosa kaLucia Gcingca. Uncedo lokuhlela oluvela kuCarolyn Hamilton. Uyilo lwephepha nguStudio de Greef. Umfanekiso weNkosi uMaqoma unikezelwe yiRobben Island Museum. Umfanekiso webhanile yokugqibela unikezelwe yiAmathole Museum, eQonce. Lintetho zethu zigcinwe apha. Ukuba unqwenela ukwenza igalelo, sebenzisa eli khonkco.

Online from: 26 Jul 2022

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Iminyaka eyi-100 yeMfazwe

Ukubulawa kweenkomo kwenzeka malunga namashumi asibhozo eminyaka kwiimfazwe zenkulungwane ezazisilwa ngamaXhosa ngokuchasene nemikhosi yaseYurophu ehlaselayo. Ababhali-mbali bahlala bebhekisa kwiimfazwe ezisithoba ezahlukeneyo, eyokuqala yaqala ngo-1779 kunye eyokugqibela yaphela ngo-1879.23John Laband, The Land Wars: The Dispossession of the Khoisan and AmaXhosa in the Cape Colony (Johannesburg: Penguin Random House, 2020). Iimfazwe ezisibhozo zabakho ngexesha lokubulawa kweenkomo.

Le mephu ithathwe kwimbali yobomi bukaLieutenant-General Sir Harry Smith. IBonisa iKoloni yeKapa leThemba eliHle ngo-1835. Oku kamva kwaziwa ngokuba yiKoloni yaseKapa. Umlambo iGreat Kei ukwicala elingasentshonalanga lemephu. iPhondo likaKumkanikazi uAdelaide lalikade lingummandla wakwaXhosa. iAlbany yayibisaziwa njengeSuurveld. Le ndawo ngoku yaziwa ngokuba nguMasipala weSithili saseSarah Baartman.

Limfazwe ezintathu zokuqala zaliwa phakathi kwemikhosi yamaXhosa kunye namaBhulu kwaye zazihlobene nomhlaba owaziwa ngokuba yiZuurveld.

Imida yalo mmandla yayinguMlambo iBushman ngasentshonalanga, noMlambo iFish osempumalanga.

Kamva, ngo-1835, yathiywa igama elithi ‘Albany’ ngamaBritane. Namhlanje, le ndawo yaziwa ngokuba nguMasipala weSithili saseSarah Baartman.

Oku kuquka iMakhanda, eyayifudula ibizwa ngokuba yiGrahamstown.

Ngexesha leemfazwe, lo mmandla wawunexabiso elikhulu lobuchule, lisebenza njengesithinteli phakathi kwendawo eyayiza kuba yiKoloni yaseKapa ukuya eNtshonalanga kunye nemimandla yakwaXhosa aseMpumalanga.

Ungquzulwano lokuqala lwaqala kweyoMnga ka-1779, xa amaBhulu awayezinze eZuurveld atyhola amaXhosa asekuhlaleni ngokuba iinkomo zabo. Omnye waloo mida – u-Adreaan Van Jaarsveld – waziphindezela ngokuthatha iinkomo kwabo wayebatyhola ngobusela, wabagxotha kuloo ndawo kweyeKhala ngo-1781.24Laband, Land Wars, 102.Imfazwe yesibini yaqala ngo-1789 yaza yathabatha iminyaka emine. AmaGqunukhwebe azama ukuphindela eZuurveld, kodwa agxothwa ngamaBhulu awayexhaswa yimikhosi yamaNdlambe.[/mfn]

Ungquzulwano lwesithathu lwaqala kwinyana Yomqungu ka-1799 ngemvukelo yamaXhosa ngokuchasene negunya lamaBhulu eZuurveld nakwingingqi eyingqongileyo. Ngelixa uvukelo lwaye lwacinezelwa ekuqaleni, ekugqibeleni lwaxhaswa yimikhosi yamaKhoi asekuhlaleni. Kwinyanga yoMdumbi ka-1803, amaBhulu anyanzelwa ukuba enze uxolo nabaphathi bamaXhosa babavumele ukuba babuyele eZuurveld.25Laband, Land Wars, 124-139.

Kwadlula iminyaka esixhenxe ngaphambi kwemfazwe yesine, ngelo xesha amaBritane ayesele efikile kuloo mmandla. Kwaba malunga neli xesha apho iZuurveld yakhula yaba yindawo ekhuselayo phakathi kweKoloni yaseKapa (eNtshonalanga) kunye nemimandla yakwaXhosa (eMpumalanga). Malunga no-1811, amanye amaXhosa aqalisa ukufudukela kuloo ndawo kodwa agxothwa ngumkhosi wamakoloniyali owawuphantsi kweKoloneli uJohn Graham. Emva koku, malunga nama – 4 000 amaBritane ahlala kufutshane nomlambo i Fish, nto leyo eyakhokelela ekusekweni kweRhini malunga nenqaba likaKoloneli John Graham.26Laband, Land Wars, 140-152.

Ngo-1818, kwavela izityholo ezitsha zeenkomo ezibiweyo, nto leyo eyadala ukonakala bobudlelane phakathi kwamaXhosa asekuhlaleni kunye nabemi bamakoloniyali, amaBritane namaBhulu ngokufanayo. Ukwenza iimeko zibe mbi ngakumbi kukuba umhlaba olawulwa ngamaXhosa ubucutheka kancinci kancinici ngoko ke ukuxinana kwaba ngumba.

Oku kwabangela imfazwe yobukhaya phakathi kwamaNgqika namaGcaleka,  apho amaNgqika afumane uncedo omkhosi kumakoloniyali (ngokwezivumelwano ekwakufikelelwe kuzo emva kweemfazwe zangaphambili).

Kukwangelo xesha apho uMakhanda (okwabizwa ngokuba nguNxele, iNxele) wavela njenge itola , ekwakukholelwa ukuba uyakwazi ukujika iimbumbulu zibe ngamanzi.27Julia C. Wells, The Return of Makhanda: Exploring the Legend (Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2012). uMakhanda noMdushane (unyana kaNdlambe) bakhokela umkhosi wamaXhosa amalunga ne-10 000 yama-Xhosa ukuya kuhlasela idolophu yaseRhini, eyayibambe umkhosi wamajoni amalunga namakhulu amathathu namashumi amahlanu kuphela.28Laband, Land Wars, 161.

Nangona kunjalo, imikhosi yamaKhoi asekuhlaleni yanceda abahlali baseBritani, kwaye uMakhanda waphulukana namajoni akhe asondele kwi-1000. Emva koko wavalelwa eRobben Island. Emva kwayo yonke into, amaBritane kunye namahlakani awo ase-Afrika bathimbe ummandla okhuselekileyo, eyathi yaba ‘yiMimandla enikezelwe’. Ebudeni bale mfazwe, idabi lika-Amalinde laliwa phakathi kwamaNgqika namaNdlambe. AmaNgqika ebekhokelwa nguMaqoma owayesemtsha kwaye engenamava, othe woyiswa edabini walahlekelwa ngamajoni amalunga namakhulu amahlanu. 29Laband, Land Wars, 153-171.

Imfazwe yesithandathu yaqala ngo-1834 yaza yaqhubeka de kwangu-1836. Ukususela ngo-1819 ukuya ku-1834, imimandla yamaXhosa yancipha ngakumbi kwaye bephulukana nokuzimela geqe ngokuthe chu. Ngaphezu koko, eli xesha liphawula ukwanda koBukumkani bukaZulu, kwaye iimbacu kunye nabaxhathisi bamaZulu (njengamaFengu) bafudukela kumhlaba wamaXhosa.

Ngomhla we-11 kweyoMnga ngo-1834, umlawuli worhulumente waseKapa wabulala inkosi yamaXhosa owayengumninawa kaMaqoma, nto leyo eyakhokelela ekubeni aziphindezele ngokuhlasela umda ngobundlobongela obukhulu, ebulala abaninzi kwaye etshabalalisa imizi yabo babemchasa.

uKumkani uHinsta – owayephambili kwaGcaleka noyise kaSarhili – wathwaliswa uxanduva ngurhulumente waseKapa, owamnyanzela ukuba ancame imihlaba emikhulu waza walwenza buthathaka igunya lakhe lobupolitika. Oku kwakuquka ukubekwa koomantyi zobukoloniyali kwimimandla zakwaXhosa.

Ngeli xesha, uHintsa waba ngumthinjwa kumagunya obukoloniyali.30Laband, Land Wars, 205. See also Premesh Lalu, The Deaths of Hinsta. Postapartheid South Africa and the Shape of Recurring Pasts (Cape Town: HSRC Press, 2009). Ekugqibeleni wazama ukubaleka kodwa wadutyulwa emva kwentloko. Iindlebe zakhe zazinqunyulwe waza nomzimba wakhe wonakele.31J.B. Peires, The House of Phalo (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1981), 109.[/mfn Ekupheleni kwale mfazwe, malunga nama-7000 aphulukene nemizi yabo, kwaye amaBritane aqalisa ukuxhobisa amahlakani awo aseAfrika njengamaFengu.31Laband, Land Wars, 198-214.

Imfazwe yesixhenxe yaqala ngo-1846 kwaye idla kubizwa ngokuba yiMfazwe ye-Zembe okanye iMfazwe yase-Amatola.32Basil Alexander Le Cordeur and Christopher C. Saunders, The War of the Axe, 1847: Correspondence Between the Governor of the Cape Colony, Sir Henry Pottinger, and the Commander of the British Forces at the Cape, Sir George Berkeley, and Others (Brendthurst Press, 1981). Kwicala elinye, umkhosi wamajoni aseBritane asanda kufika ayemanyene nomxube wamaKhoi, amaFengu namaBhulu. Oku kuquka amaqela ‘ohlanga oluxubeneyo’. Kwelinye icala kwakukho iqela elidityanisiweyo lamaqela amaNgqika, amaNdlambe nabaThembu. Ngeli nqanaba, imikhosi yamaXhosa yayixhobe ngemipu, kwaye omabini amacala ayesebenzisa ubuchule bokulwa ‘bomhlaba otshisiweyo”.33Laband, Land Wars, 226-244.

Imfazwe yesibhozo, eyaqala ngo-1850 ukuya ku-1853, yandulela ukubulawa kweenkomo, kwaye kwayimfazwe apho kwabulawa abazali bakaNongqawuse. Yaziwa ngokuba yiMfazwe kaMlanjeni, yathiywa ngegama letola elavuka lakhuthaza amaXhosa ukuba azame ukuhlutha umhlaba awawephulukene nawo.

Le mfazwe ikwaphawula ukufika kunye nokuhamba kukaLieutenant-General Harry Smith.34Keith Smith, Harry Smith’s Last Throw. The Eighth Frontier War. 1850-1853 (London: Frontline Books, 2012). Ngelixa imikhosi yamaXhosa ibikonwabela uloyiso ekuqaleni, ngo-1851 amaBritane ayeqalisa ukufumana amandla angaphezulu. Nangona kunjalo, uSmith wasuswa kwisikhundla sakhe sokuba yintloko yemikhosi yamakoloniyali kweyoMdumba ka-1852 kwaye kwathatyathwa iRhuluneli entsha yeKapa leThemba eliHle, uNjengele uGeorge Cathcart. Kuthe kweyoMdumbi ka-1853, iinkosi ezazisilwa, ukuquka noSandile, zazisele zinikezele. Imfazwe yabangela ilahleko epheleleyo kumaXhosa aseCiskei.35Laband, Land Wars, 255-280.

 

 

 

Ilahleko yomhlaba wamaXhosa yaqala ngo 1779. Indawo ka Sarhili eboniswe apha ngeya ngo-1866. Ngeli xesha, imimandla yeenkosi ezininzi yayiphantsi kwegunya lobukoloniyali. Imephu enikelwe apha isekelwe kwimephu enikelwe kuJ.B. Peires, The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle-Killing of 1856-7 (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1989).

Ukubulawa kweenkomo kwenzeka ngasekupheleni kweli xesha lemfazwe yokulwa nobukoloniyali. KumaXhosa, eli yayilixesha lokuhluthwa nokuphelelwa lithemba. Kuthe ngo-1856, AmaXhosa anyanzeleka ukuba ancame umhlaba omninzi ngakumbi kumaBritani.

Igunya labo kwezopolitiko liye lehla aza amanye amaXhosa aphila phantsi kolawulo lobukoloniyali, abanye ngokuzithandela abanye phantsi kokunyanzelwa. Esinye isiphumo semfazwe sesokuba kwakukho ukunqongophala kokutya okukhulu, okwakunxulunyaniswa nokunqongophala komhlaba, kodwa kwakhona nokuncipha kokufumaneka kwabasebenzi ngenxa yokulahlekelwa ngabantu emfazweni, kwakunye nokuphambukiswa kwemithombo yobutyebi ebandakanyeka kungquzulwano olunjalo. Oku asisathethi ke into yokuba izityalo nemfuyo zatshatyalaliswa. Ngoko ke, kwabakho ukuqhawuka okukhulu kwezinto, kwezopolitiko nezentlalo ezenzeka kumhlaba wakwaXhosa ngaphambi kokubulawa kweenkomo.

 

amaXhosa adumileyo nabanye abantu ababalulekileyo

Izindlu zobukhosi bakwaXhosa kuthiwa ziphuma kumnombo kaNtu, ongukhokho wawo onke amaAfrika aphuma embindini weAfrika. Ngulo khokho, uNtu, obonelela ngekhonkco phakathi kwabo bonke abantu. Igama elithi bantu lidla ngokuguqulelwa ngokuthi ‘abantu’. Eli gama lisetyenziswa xa kubhekiswa kubantu abasuka kumbindi ukuya kumazantsi eAfrika abathetha iilwimi ezineengcambu ekwabelwana ngazo, eziquka isiXhosa, isiZulu, nesiSotho. Isinye ngesiXhosa sithi ‘umntu’.

Le mbali idibanisa abantu abaninzi abasuka kumbindi ukuya kumazantsi eAfrika abathetha iilwimi ezineengcambu zokwabelana eziquka isiXhosa, isiZulu, isiSotho, nezinye ezininzi.

Indlu yobukhosi bakwaXhosa yangoku iquka iinzala zabo babelawula ngexesha lokubulawa kweenkomo. Iquka iinzala zikaPhalo owalawula ukusukela ngo-1736 de kwasekufeni kwakhe ngo-1775. Abona bantwana bakaPhalo abaziwayo nguGcaleka kunye noRharhabe, apho izindlu zasebukhosini ezikhoyo zafumana khona amagama azo.

Unyana kaGcaleka owangena ezihlangwini zakhe yaba nguKhawuta owazala uHintsa. uHintsa wayenguyise kaSarhili owayeyinkosi yamaGcaleka nokumkani yawo onke amaXhosa ngexesha lokubulawa kweenkomo.

uRharhabe wayenoonyana abaninzi, ukuquka uMlawu, owazala uNgqika noNdlambe. uNgqika wayenguyise kaSandile noMaqoma, kwakunye nabanye abantu ababalulekileyo, abafana noAnta, ngexesha lokubulawa kweenkomo. Ngelixa uMaqoma wayekhonza njengombambeli-nkosi yamaNgqika, yayinguSandile owanyuka de ahlale esihlalweni sobukhosi ukuze abe ngukumkani wamaNgqika ngeminyaka yoo-1870.

AmaXhosa awayebalulekile ngexesha lokubulawa kweenkomo:

  • uSarhili: uNyana kaHintsa. Inkulu yakwaGcaleka nekumkani yawo onke amaXhosa.
  • uSandile: Inkulu yamaRharhabe nenkosi yakwaNgqika. Wayehlala kufutshane noMkomishinala wamakoloniyali wamaNgqika, uCharles Brownlee. USandile wayengumninawa kaMaqoma. Waqala engumntu ongakholwayo, kodwa ekugqibeleni wasilandela isiprofeto.
  • uMaqoma: Inkosi yamaRharhabe nomphathi wesibini kwaNgqika. Wakhonza njengombambeli-nkosi ebantwini bakowabo wade wakhula uSandile. Wayesaziwa  njengegorha elinamava abanzi kwezomkhosi, udla ngokuzotywa ngamakholoniyali njengenxila elalixhokonxa imfazwe. Ngexesha lokuxoxwa kwetyala lakhe emva kokubulawa kweenkomo, wabetha igosa lobukoloniyali ngentonga yakhe. uMaqoma wayelikholwa eliQinileyo. Njengabaninzi, usapho lwakhe belihlukene phakathi kwamakholwa nabo abangakholwayo. Ngokomzekelo, unyana wakhe omdala (oMkhulu), uNamba, wayelikholwa, kodwa oonyana bakhe ababini, uKona noNed, babengakholwa.
  • uNongqawuse: Umprofetikazi wokuqala ekukubulaweni kweenkomo. Abazali bakhe babulawa kwimfazwe yangaphambili echasa amakoloniyali. Emva koku, wasiwa kumalume wakhe uMhlakaza.
  • uPhatho: Ikholwa eliqinileyo nenkokeli yamaGqunukhwebe. Abantu bakaPhatho babengomnye wamaqela ambalwa awabulala ezinye iinkomo zawo phambi kwesiprofeto ngenzame yokuphelisa ukusasazeka kwesifo semiphunga. Iinkokheli zamaGqunukhwebe beziphuma kwinzala yamaKhoi. Umzi kaPhatho waqala ukubulala iinkomo phambi kwesiprofeto ngelizama ukunqanda ukwanda kwesifo semiphunga.
  • uDilima: uNyana kaPhato. Owokuqala ukusela emlanjeni ngethuba eyalelwa nguNongqawuse ukuba abonakalise ukuba wayengenguye umenzi wobuti.
  • uKama: Waguqukela ebuKristwini. Ongakholwayo. Owesibini kwinkokeli yamaGqunukhwebe.
  • u-Anta: Wayengakholelwa kweso siprofeto. Ubhuti kaSandile.
  • uMhala: Ikholwa. Inkosi yamaNdlambe.
  • uSoga Omdala: Ilungu lebhunga kaSandile nongakholwayo.
  • uTiyo Soga: uNyana kaSoga Omdala, kwaye wayedume ngomsebenzi wakhe wobufundisi.Ufumene imfundo yakhe yokuqala kwisikhululo semishini kaJohn Aitkins Chalmers eTyumie/Chumie. uSoga wayeseBritani ngexesha lokubulawa kweenkomo, kodwa wabuyela kwisiphumo.Wayethandwa kakhulu ngabathunywa bevangeli, nangona isikolo sakhe semishini sasikhuphisana neKholeji yaseZonnebloem kaGeorge Grey.
  • uNombanda: Uhlobene noNongqawuse emva kwesha waba ngumprofetikazi. Kwingxelo yakhe, uNongqawuse wathi ekuqaleni uNombanda wayengawaboni futhi engaweva la madoda athetha naye, kodwa kamva waba ngumprofetikazi othandwayo kwiinkosi.
  • uNonkosi: Umprofetikazi womlambo uMpongo owaduma emva nje kukaNongqawuse.
  • uMhlakaza: uMalume ka Nongqawuse. uPeires wayecinga ukuba ebengumfundi kuArchdeacon uNathaniel Merriman waseRhini, nangona oku kuphikiswa nguSheila Boniface-Davies. Umjelo ophambili wesi siprofeto, kwaye uchazwe nguChalmers noBrownlee ‘njengomprofeti onobuqhinga’.

Ukugula kwemiphunga

Ngaphaya kwemfazwe, kubalulekile ukuba kucingwe ngeemeko zempilo yemfuyo yamaXhosa. Iminyaka yoo-1850 yayilixesha apho ukugula kwemiphunga kwakusasazeka phakathi kweenkomo zalo mmandla ngamandla amakhulu.

Ukugula kwemiphunga sisifo esisasazwa ngamathontsi, ngokuqhelekileyo ngamathe. Ngelixa iinkomo zibonisa iimpawu ezibonakalayo, ubukho babasasazi abangenazo iimpawu benza kwanzima ukulawula. Lo bhubhani, owaqala ngo-1853, kucingelwa ukuba yeyona lahleko imbi yemfuyo kulo mmandla de kwaqhambuka ulindipasi ngo-1896. Isigulo kwakucingelwa ukuba siziswe kulommandla ziinkomo zamaDatshi ezazibizwa ngokuba yi mof, okokuqala e Mossel bay.36Chris Andreas, ‘The Spread and Impact of the Lungsickness Epizootic of 1853-57 in the Cape Colony and the Xhosa Chiefdoms’, South African Historical Journal Vol. 53, Issue 1: Special Issue: Environmental History (2005), 50-72. Chris Andreas, ‘Preventative Inoculation of Cattle against Lungsickness in the Cape: Informal Technology Transfer and Local Knowledge Production in the Nineteenth Century’, South African Historical Journal, Vol. 71 Issue 4 (2019), 536-559.

 

Isigulo semiphunga sangena kwaXhosa ekuqaleni kweminyaka yoo-1850. Abanye abafana njengamaGqunukhwebe kaPhato bebesele beqalisile ukubulala iinkomo zabo phambi kwesi siprofeto ngethemba lokunqanda ukwanda kwesi sifo. uPeires ubeka isifo semiphunga njengoyena nobangela wokubulawa kweenkomo okwalandelayo. Imephu enikelwe apha isekwe kwimephu enikelwe ku-J.B. Peires, The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle-Killing of 1856-7 (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1989

Nangaphambili kokubulawa kweenkomo zakwaXhosa, iindawo ezithile kwaXhosa zanyanzelwa ukuba zibulale iinkomo zabo ngenxa yesi sigulo. Ngomzekelo, amaGqunukhwebe phantsi kwenkosi uPhatho aqala ukubulala iinkomo zawo kwiminyaka ethile phambi kwesiprofeto sikaNongqawuse ngomzamo wokunqanda ukwanda kwesi sifo.37J.B. Peires, The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle-Killing of 1856-7 (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1989), 253. UPhatho, owayeyinzalelwane yamaKhoi, naye wayeza kuba likholwa eliqinileyo, owayeza kuba likholwa elinamandla ngokwakhe, kwaye wayeyenye yeenkosi ezazifunwa kakhulu ngabaphathi bamakoloniyali ababefuna ukuvalela ezintolongweni ezona nkokeli zamaXhosa ezazichasene nobukoloniyali.

Ngexesha lenkulungwane edlulileyo, iqela lamaKhoikhoi eOverberg nalo labulala uninzi lweenkomo zabo ezimhlophe, lilandela imiyalelo kaJan Parel, owaziveza njengo ‘Liewen Heer’ (ongafiyo).38Russel Viljoen, ‘Making sense of the Khoikhoi Cattle-Killing of 1788: An Episode of Millenarianism in Khoikhoi Society’, Kronos No. 24 (November 1997), 62-76.

uParel wayeseSwellendam, kwaye kweyeThupha ka-1788 waxela kwangaphambili ukuba ‘ihlabathi’ (ekucingelwa ukuba iquka kuphela ummandla weKoloni yaseKapa) laliya kutshatyalaliswa ngowama-25 kweyeDwarha waloo nyaka. Wayalela abalandeli bakhe ukuba baxhele zonke iinkomo zabo ezimhlophe, bakhe amanqugwala amatsha aneengcango ezimbini, batshise zonke iimpahla zabo zaseYurophu, kwaye bahlasele iSwellendam Drostdy. I-Drostdy yakhiwa yinkampani yase Dutch East India ngo-1747. Yayisebenza njengekhaya kunye nekomkhulu lamagosa amaDatshi eSwellendam.39Beverley Thomas, The Drostdy in Swellendam: A pictorial history. Drostdy Museum, 1995.

Kucazululo lwakhe lokubulawa kweenkomo zama Khoi lika-1788, umbhali-mbali uRussel Viljoen uthi esi siprofeto savela njengokuchaswa kokuthotywa kwenkcubeko kunye nokuhluthwa kwempahla okuthe kwathwalwa ngamaKhoi phantsi kwamaDatshi. Oku kufana nqwa nemeko yamaXhosa ngeminyaka yoo-1850.

Ibali lamayelenqe amabini

Kwisiqingatha sokugqibela senkulungwane yeshumi elinesithoba, kwavela iingcingane ezimbini eziphikisanayo zokuba kutheni ukubulawa kweenkomo kwenzeka.

Eyokuqala eyabhalwa yaza yapapashwa kubhekiselwa kuyo njenge ‘iYelenqe yeMfazwe yeeNkosi’. Oku kuvele kubabhali bekoloniyali abafana noJohn Aitkins Chalmers kunye noCharles Brownlee. Yathatyathwa ngabantu abathanda ubujoni kunye nabezopolitiko, ukuquka iRhuluneli uGeorge Grey.

Eyesibini yabhalwa yaza yapapashwa kamva – nangona kwakunokwenzeka ukuba kwabelwana ngayo ngomlomo – kwaye ngamanye amaxesha ibizwa ngokuba li’Yelenqe likaGrey’. Oku kwakhuthazwa ziingqondi zaseAfrika ezifana noW.W. Gqoba. Yapapashwa ukuphendula ukuthwandwa kweembali ezazisa ngaphambili‘‘iYelenqe leMfazwe yeeNkosi”.

I ’Yelenqe leMfazwe yeeNkosi’

I ‘Yelenqe leMfazwe yeeNkosi’ ngumbono wokuba iinkosi zakwaXhosa zaziqambe esi siprofeto ukuze zinyanzelise amaXhosa ukuba aphelelwe lithemba aze akhuthazeke ukuba alwe imfazwe yokugxotha abantu baseYurophu emhlabeni. Kwezinye iinguqulelo, iyelenqe lemfazwe kwakucingelwa ukuba lenziwe nguSarhili noMoshoeshoe, ukumkani waseLesotho kunye nabantu babeSotho.40John Zarwan, ‘The Xhosa Cattle Killings, 1856-7’, Cahiers d’etudes africaines, Vol. 16, No. 63-64 (1976), 519-539.

Le nkcazo-bungcali isekelwe kwingxoxo ethi uNongqawuse wadlala ‘njengegqirha eliligogo’ (ngokukodwa igqirha elinxulumene nokubona kwangaphambili ikamva). Oku kwafuna ukuba enze umsebenzi ofanayo nabaprofeti abadumileyo bakwaXhosa, ngakumbi uMakanda/Nxele (owayedume ngeDabi laseRhini ngokuchasene nabami belizwe abatsha baka-1820 ngexesha leMfazwe yesiHlanu) kunye noMlanjeni (owayedume ngeMfazwe yeSibhozo, eyaziwa ngokuba yiMfazwe kaMlanjeni).

Ngaphambi nje kokuba kubulawe iinkomo, uMlanjeni uye waduma ngokukhokela amaXhosa ukuba alwe namaBritani (1850-3). Amandla akhe obugqi kuthiwa aquka ukwazi ukuguqula iimbumbulu zibe ngamanzi. Kwimibhalo, uMlanjeni kunye noMakanda badla ngokubizwa ngokuba zitola (inguqulelo ethe ngqo ithi ‘intaba’), esetyenziselwa ukubhekisa ngokuthe ngqo ‘kumaprofeti bemfazwe’. Iingqondi zesiXhosa ezifana noW.W. Gqoba kwaye noW.M. Philip ziphikisa ukuba uNongqawuse wayengenakuba ‘ligqirha eliligogo’ ngoba wayesemncinci kwaye engumfazi. Kude kube ngelo xesha, yindoda kuphela enokuba ligqirha41Helen Bradford and Msokoli Qotole, ‘Ingxoxo enkulu ngoNongqawuse (A Great Debate about Nongqawuse’s Era’, Kronos Vol. 34, No.1 (November 2008), 66-105.

i’Yelenqe leMfazwe kaGrey’

Ukukhuthazwa kwenkcazo-bungcali ye ‘Yelenqe leMfazwe yeeNkosi’ kwiimbali eyayifundiswa kumaziko afana neLovedale College yaza yakhuthazwa eBritani yakhokelela ekupapashweni kwenkcazo-bungcali echaseneyo eyaveliswa ziingqondi zaseAfrika.

Le nkcazo-bungcali yathi iRhuluneli uGeorge Grey weKoloni yaseKapa nguye owayesemva kwesi siprofeto. Ingcamango yayiyeyokuba esi siprofeto sasisakhiwo sobukoloniyali nguGeorge Grey kunye neqela lakhe (ukuquka abafana noGawler noMaclean), befuna ukutshabalalisa abemi bakwaXhosa, benze buthathaka izakhiwo zabo zopolitiko, nokudodobalisa uluntu lwabo. Abanye bade bathi ukithi lamadoda aswelekileyo abonakala kuNongqawuse kumlambo iGxarha ngenene yayingamadoda amhlophe azifihlileyo.42J.B. Peires, The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle-Killing of 1856-7 (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1989), 328-9.

Le nkcazo-bungcali yavela ngokushicilelweyo emva kwenkcazo-bungcali ye ‘Yelenqe leMfazwe yeeNkosi’. Isiganeko sokuqala esapapashwa kwiphepha likaGqoba elithi ‘Isizatu sokuxelwa kwenkomo ngoNongqause’ kwiphephandaba lesiXhosa Isigidimi SamaXosa kwinyanga yoKwindla nekaTshazimpunzi ka1888. Ngelixa uGqoba engayichazi le nkcazo-bungcali ‘njenge ’Yelenqe leMfazwe kaGrey’, ubonela ngomxholo wayo.

Ngokunokwenzeka, le nkcazo-bungcali yayikho ukususela kwiintsuku zokuqala zokubulawa kweenkomo ngeendlela zomlomo. uGrey wayedeliwe kakhulu phakathi kwezangqa zamaXhosa. Izithethi kunye nababhali bade bambiza ihashe elingwevu. Kwimibhalo kaGqoba, ubhekiselwa kuye ngokungafihlisiyo ‘njengoSathana’, okanye lowo wenza umsebenzi kaSathana.43Bradford and Qotole, ‘Ingxoxo’, 78.

Inkalo ebalulekileyo yalenkcazo-bungcalii kukuba ukubulawa kweenkomo

kwayiliyelenqe lamakholoniyali yindlela emele ngayo esiganeko. Ukuba ukubulawa kweenkomo yayiliyelenqe lamakoloniyali, ngoko ke isiphumo sokubulawa kweenkomo – ukufa kwabantu abaninzi kunye nokuhluthwa – ifundeka, eneneni, njengokuzisa uhlobo lwentshabalalo yohlanga lonke. Kunqabile kakhulu ukuba umbhali-mbali abhekisele ekubulaweni kweenkomo njengembubhiuso. Nangona kunjalo, kwincwadi yembongi yenkulungwane yamashumi amabini uJ. J.R. Jolobe, sifumana esi siganeko sinesihloko esithi ‘Ingqawule’, ngamanye amaxesha ifaniswa ‘neHolocaust’.44J.J.R. Jolobe, Ilitha (South Africa: Perskor, 1959). For an analysis of the text, see G.T. Sirayi, ‘The African perspective of the 1856/7 cattle-killing movement’, South African Journal of African Languages, 11:1 (1991), 40-45. Ngale ndlela, sinokubona ukuba abacingisi bama-1950 babecingela ukubhalwa kwengcamango ‘yontshabalalo yohlanga lonke’ ekubulaweni kweenkomo.

Kumaxesha angoku, kwanabona bantu bacingayo kanzulu ngokuxhasa inkqubela-phambili – njengentandabulumko yezopolitiko uAchille Mbembe – bawubize lo msitho njengo ‘kuZibulala KweSizwe’ samaXhosa.45Achille Mbembe, ‘South Africa’s Second Coming: The Nongqawuse Syndrome’. Originally published in the Sunday Times, 14 June 2006.

Le leyibhile ibonakala ngathi isusa lonke ityala kumakholoniyali kwaye endaweni yoko ibeka konke kumaXhosa wodwa, ngokungathi iimeko zobukoloniyali zazingekho ngundoqo kulo msitho. Le ngcamango ‘yokuzibulala kwesizwe’ iye yagxekwa kakhulu ngamanani afana noCredo Mutwa, isanusi sakwaZulu esidumileyo, umbhali opapashiweyo nongqondi ohlonitshwayo.46Credo Mutwa, Africa is My Witness (Johannesburg: Blue Crane Books, 1966).

 

iNkcaso yobuKoloniyali yeHlabathi Jikelele

Ngexesha lwenkulungwane yeshumi elinesithoba, kwakunqabile ukuba abantu basemazantsi e-Afrika bahambe baye kumazwe aphesheya. Nangona kunjalo, oku kwakungathethi ukuba iindaba zezinto ezenzekayo kwihlabathi azizange zingene kumazantsi eAfrika.

Malunga nexesha lokuBulawa kweeNkomo zamaXhosa, kwenzeka iziganeko ezibini ezibalulekileyo ezadlala indima ebalulekileyo ekwandeni kodumo lwesi siprofeto phakathi kwamaXhosa.

Eyokuqala yaba kukufa kukaNjengele uGeorge Cathcart ngexesha leMfazwe yaseYukreyini, kwindawo ngoku ebizwa nge-Ukraine. Imfazwe yaqala ngo1853, kwiminyaka emithathu phambi kokuvuka kukaNongqawuse. 47Jennifer Wenzel, Bulletproof. Afterlives of Anticolonial Prophecy in South Africa and Beyond (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2009), 20-21, 201-205.

Okwesibini yaba kukutshona kwephenyane le-HMS Geyser kweyeNkanga ngo-1856 emlonyeni woMlambo iKei. Oku kwakumalunga neenyanga ezisibhozo emva kokuba uNongqawuse etyelelwe ngabangasekhoyo, kwaye phakathi naphakathi ekubulaweni kweenkomo.

Ezi ziganeko zimbini zibonisa uvakalelo lokuqonda kwehlabathi phakathi kwamaXhosa, nangona laluncitshiswe lulwazi olufumanekayo kubo. Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ulwazi lwabo ngeziganeko zaphesheya, kunye nento abayenza ngolu lwazi. Oku kusivumela ukuba siqonde ngakumbi inkolelo nentelekelelo yelo xesha phakathi kwamaXhosa.

Abantu abamnyama baseRussia beMfazwe yaseCrimea

Kuluncedo ukucinga ngokulandelelanayo malunga noku kucinga ‘kwehlabathi’ okuyimvelaphi yokubulawa kweenkomo. Oku kunceda ukuqonda indlela ingcamamngo eyakhula ngayo.

Siqala ngo-1853, ngeMfazwe ka-Mlanjeni. Ngexesha lemfazwe, uGeneral George Cathcart wangeniswa ukuba athathe indawo kaHarry Smith, owafumana iilahleko ezinkulu ngexesha lemfazwe.48J.B. Peires, The Dead Will Arise: Nongqawuse and the Great Xhosa Cattle-Killing of 1856-7 (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1989), 105. See also Keith Smith, Harry Smith’s Last Throw. The Eighth Frontier War. 1850-1853 (London: Frontline Books, 2012). Imfazwe yaphela xa uCathcart wakhokelela amaBritane ukuba aphumelele ekulweni namaXhosa awayephefumlelwe nguMlanjeni kunye namahlakani awo aseBasotho.

Emva kwempumelelo yakhe kumazantsi eAfrika, uCathcart wathunyelwa eCrimea ngo-1854 ukuyo kulwa kwiMfazwe yaseCrimea ngokuchasene namaRushiya. Wabulawa edabini emva konyaka kuphela ekuqitheni kokoyisa kwakhe amaXhosa.49Orlando Figes, The Crimean War: A History (London: Picador, 2012). Ibali lokufa kwakhe labuyela emazantsi eAfrika, mhlawumbi ngabahambi bamakoloniyali, amagosa omkhosi kunye nabavangeli basemazweni. AmaXhosa ayekholelwa ukuthi amaRashiya oyise uCathcart waye ngamahlakani awo.

AmaXhosa ayemanyene naBasotho ngeMfazwe ka-Mlanjeni. Ngokunjalo, babenolwazi ngokwandaswa kwamaZulu okwakhokelela kwintshukumo esemazantsi yamaqela afana namaFengu. AmaXhosa ayesazi ukuba amanye amaqela akwimeko efanayo nawo, yokulwa namaBritane kunye neminye imikhosi yobukoloniyali. Ngaloo ndlela, amaRashiya awoyisa uCathcart eCrimea kwakucingelwa ukuba nawo ngabantu abaNtsundu kwaye alwela umzabalazo ofanayo namaBritani njengamaXhosa kunye namanye amaAfrika.

Imfazwe yaseCrimea yaphela kweyoKwindla ka-1856, kwakusele inyanga enye kuphela phambi kokuba uNongqawuse atyelelwe ngabangasekhoyo. AmaRashiya oyiswa emfazweni, kodwa uninzi (ukuba asingawo onke) lwamaXhosa ayengayazi leyonto.

iHMS Geyser

Kwinyanga yeNkanga ka-1856, uGeorge Grey wanika umyalelo wokuba inqanawa izame ukuhamba inyuke ngomlambo iKei. Wanika lo myalelo ngokuchasene nengcebiso yamanye amagosa. Umsebenzi wenqanawa yayikukuvavanya ukuba kunokwenzeka na ukuhambisa amajoni kunye nezixhobo ngomlambo.

Ukapteni weGeyser kuthiwa wayenxilile ngelo xesha yaye akazange azinanze izilumkiso  zobungozi bokuhamba ngesikhephe kufutshane nenzulu yoMlambo iKei.50Peires, The Dead Will Arise, 144-5. Isikhephe esasithwele amalungu abasebenzi beGeyser siye sabhukuqa kwaye kwasinda indoda enye kuphela.

AmaXhosa amaninzi awayehlangene ukuza kubona inqanawe aye asibona esi sihlo. Ngeli xesha inzondelelo yesi siprofeto sikaNongqawuse yayibambe abaninzi. Kwaba nenkolelo yokuba isikhephe satshoniswa ngamaXhosa – ekhokelwe nguKumkani uHintsa – owayevukile kwabafileyo ngokwesiprofeto sikaNongqawuse.51Peires, The Dead Will Arise, 171.

iNgongoma yengxoxo

Inkcazo-bungcali ‘yabaseRushiya abaNtsundu’ yaba yinto yomdla kwabaninzi. Yaxoxwa, ngomzekelo, nguCharles Brownlee kunye noWilliam Mbali Philip kwiimpendulo zabo kumanqaku kaGqoba kwiSigidimi SamaXosa ngo-1888.52Helen Bradford and Msokoli Qotole, ‘Ingxoxo enkulu ngoNongqawuse (A Great Debate about Nongqawuse’s Era)’, Kronos Vol. 34, No.1 (November 2008), 93, 95, 97, 100.

Iboniswa, kwakhona, ku-The Dead Will Arise kaJeff Peires. Kwimibhalo yakhe esemazantsi, uPeires uphawula iileta phakathi kwamagunya obukoloniyali elo xesha, ukuquka uGrey, uMaclean, uGawler, noBrownlee. Iphinde yavela kwiphephandaba iArgus ngomhla ka-3 kweyoMqungu ngo-1867, nakwijenali yaseRhini ngomhla ka-28 kweyeKhala ngo-1857.53The references provided by Peires: GH 22/8 H Trotter-G Grey, 15 Aug. 1856; GH 8/49 J Maclean-G Grey, 16 Oct., 10, 20 Nov. 1856; GH 30/4 G Grey-J Maclean, 18, 28 Oct. 1856; BK 81 J Gawler-J Maclean, 17 Oct. 1856; Grahamstown Journal, 28 July 1857. BK 70 C Brownlee-J Maclean, 11 Dec. 1856; BK 81 J Gawler-J Maclean, 20 Nov. 1856; GH 8/30 R Robert son-J Maclean, 23 Nov. 1856; GH 8/30 C Brownlee-J Maclean, 7 Dec. 1856; Argus, 3 Jan. 1857.

I Millenarianism

iMillenarianism yingcamango esetyeziswa xa kuchazwa intshukumo eyotshintsho olusisiseko nolumandla kuluntu.54Yonina Talmon, ‘Millenarian Movements’, European Journal of Sociology, Vol. 7, No. 2, On Suicide (1966), 159-200. Bonnie B. Keller, ‘Millenarianism and Resistance: the Xhosa Cattle Killing’, Journal of Asia and African Studies 13 (1978), 95-111. Idla ngokunxulunyaniswa nobuKristu kodwa ayiyonto yobumnini yobaKristu ngokunyanzeleka. Ukubonakala ‘kwabaprofeti’ kudla ngokudibaniswa neentshukumo zemillenarian. Aba baprofeti banikela imiyalelo ekunokufikelelwa ngayo kwi-utopia. Ezi ntshukumo zimelelwe njengokuzitshabalalisayo kwaye nokukholelwa eluvukweni. Oku kuthetha i-utopia ezayo enokufezekiswa ngokugxothwa ngobundlobongela kwayo nantoni na ethathwa njengesifo kuluntu.

Kwisehlo sokubulawa kweenkomo, ingxoxo yokuba esi siprofeto sinemvelaphi yobuKrestu ingqinwa libango likaPeires lokuba uMhlakaza (umalume kaNongqawuse) wayesakuba ngumfundi ka-Archdeacon uNathaniel Merriman waseRhini. Ngeli xesha, kwakuthiwa wayesebenzisa igama elithi ‘Wilhelm Goliat’. uPeires usebenzise ubungqina bobudlelwane phakathi kwaba babini kwijenali kaArchdeacon ukungqinela ibango lokuba iziseko zesi siprofeto zazizezobuKrestu. Oku kuquka ingcamango yedini yokuzisa i-utopia, kunye nombono wovuko.

Eli bango lokuba uMhlakaza wayengumfundi kaMerriman liye laphikiswa nguSheila Boniface-Davies. Kuphando lwakhe lobugqirha, akazange akwazi ukufumana ubungqina obaneleyo kwiijenali zika-Archdeacon Merriman ukungqinela nebango likaPeires lokuba uMhlakaza nguWilhelm Goliat.55Sheila Boniface-Davies, ‘Raising the Dead: The Xhosa Cattle-Killing and the Mhlakaza-Goliat Delusion’, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 33, No. 1 (March 2007), 19-41. Nangona kunjalo, akaphikisani nezinto zobuKristu okanye iimpembelelo zesi siprofeto. Kutsala umdla ukuqwalasela okwenzekayo xa sicinga ngesi siprofeto njengempembelelo yobuKristu, kunokusijonga njengento esekelwe kwiingcinga yamaXhosa.

KuMzantsi Afrika wangoku olawulwa kakhuku bubuKristu, kukho umngcipheko othile wokunyanzelisa iinkolelo zanamhlanje kwixesha elidlulileyo apho iinkolelo zonqulo zisenokuba zahluke ngokupheleleyo. Ixesha likaNongqawuse yayingeloxesha lozinzo, ukufana okanye ukuvunywa kwenkolo yobuKrestu phakathi kwamaXhosa. Kunoko, inkolo yobuKrestu kwaXhosa ngeminyaka yoo-1850 yayiyimveliso yenkqubo yoku thethathethwano oluqhubekayo phakathi kwesithethe samaXhosa nobuKrestu.

Kwincwadi yakhe ethi Bulletproof, uJennifer Wenzel uxoxa ngeemeko ezininzi kwinkulungwane yamashumi anesithoba nakwinkulungwane yamashumi amabini zamaxhoba  amakholoniyali kwezinye iindawo awathatha iindlela ‘zokuzitshabalalisa’ ezifanayo ekulweni  ikoloniyalizim. Kwiminyaka nje embalwa emva kweMfazwe yaseCrimea, nangonyaka wesibini nowokugqibela wokubulawa kweenkomo (1857), kwabakho iMvukelo enkulu yaseSeapoy eIndiya, into uWenzel ayitsalela kuhlalutyo lwakhe ngokuxuseneyo kunye ngokufanayo wokuziphanzisa ukuxhathisa ngokukodwa ikoloniyalizim yaseBritane. Zombini iMvukelo enkulu yaseSeapoy kunye neMfazwe yaseCrimea zibekwa njengeempembelelo ekubulaweni kweenkomo.

Okubandakanyiweyo kuluhlu lwakhe lweziganeko zemillenarian ezinxuseneyo zezi:

  • Imvukelo yaseTaiping eTshayina (1843-64)
  • ukuBulawa kwaBantu aBaninzi lasePai Marire eNew Zealand (1862-72)
  • Intshukumo yomdaniso woMoya kuMntla Melika (1870 kunye no-1888-96)
  • Uvukelo lwaseBirsa Munda eIndiya (1895-1900)
  • IChimurenga yokuqala eRhodesia/Zimbabwe (1896-1900)
  • Intshukumo yeCanudos eBrazil (1896-7)
  • Imvukelo yaseMaji Maji, eTanganyika/Tanzania (1905-1907)
  • Iintshukumo ezininzi eBelgian Congo (1921-60)56Jennifer Wenzel, Bulletproof. Afterlives of Anticolonial Prophecy in South Africa and Beyond (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2009), 3-4.

U Wenzel ukwabandakanya iimeko zangoku ezifana ne-Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) e-Uganda (1987-ngoku) kunye nemikhosi ka-Muqtada al-Sadr yase-Baghdad (2003-ngoku). Kuzo zonke ezi meko, yimvukelo yaseTaiping kuphela eyaqala ngaphambi kokubulawa kweenkomo.

Amakhonkco enziwa phakathi kokubulawa kweenkomo kwamaXhosa  kunye nezintshukumo ezivela kwihlabathi lonke lamakoloniyali asekelwe esisithethe sobuJuda nobuKrestu, ithemba le-utopia, kunye ne-apocalypse ezayo enokuphetshwa kuphela ngovuko olungcwele.

Lonke uluntu apho iintshukumo zemillenarian zavela ngasekupheleni kwenkulungwane yeshumi elinesithoba kunye nasekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yamashumi amabini zazikwinkqubo yokukholonayizwa.57Michael Adas, Prophets of Rebellion. Millenarian Protest Movements against the European Colonial Order (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979).

Kuzo zonke iimeko, igunya lezopolitiko labantu bomthonyama belizwe laligxothwa ngamandla obukoloniyali, ukuquka neziko zomthetho wamakoloniyali, iinkundla kunye neejaji. Ngokungeniswa  lwenkqubo zolawulo ngamakholoniyali, iinkokeli zasekuhlaleni zaboniswa ukuba azikwazi ukuzisebenza okanye ukulawula ezi nkqubo zintsha.

Umhlaba omninzi walahleka kumandla obukoloniyali, kwaye ngoku kuphila kwalahleka. Oku kukhokelele ekwandeni kokuxhomekeka kuncedo lobukoloniyali (ukuquka imisebenzi kunye nokutya). Irhafu kunye neerhafu ziye zaziswa ukuze abuntu bahlale kwaye bafudukele kwiindawo eziphantsi kwamakoloniyali. Oku kwakuthetha ukuba ukuzimela lwasekuhlaleni lalahleka, kwaye nokuxhomekeka kulawulo lobukoloniyali kwanda. Abemi basekuhlaleni babekwimeko yokuphelelwa ngamandla ngokwezinto eziphathekayo.

Ngaphandle kolu tshintsho lwezinto eziphathekayo nezobupolitiki, iinkonzo zomthonyama zazishenxiswa bubuKristu. Le nkolo yafundiswa kwizikolo zemishini ezasekwa kuzo zonke iikoloni. Ngokufuduswa kweenqulo zasekuhlaleni kwabakho ukuwohloka kwemilinganiselo yokuziphatha kunye nolawulo. Amasiko okwaluka anxulumene nokuchwephesha nawo ayephelelwa ngamandla. Ayekwanjalo ke amasiko neentlobo zomthetho zabamthonyama, ezazisoloko zinxibelelene nonqulo. Ngaloo ndlela, ukuba semthethweni kwamagunya wamthonyama kwakunyamalala.

Iimeko ezinjalo zanika imeko-bume yokuvela kwabaprofeti ababebone kwangaphambili ikamva eliqaqambileyo elinokubakho kubantu bomthonyama. Elikamva lalihlala linxulunyaniswa nokuvela kwakhona kwe ixesha lakudala lolonwabo elilahlekileyo ukususela ngaphambi kwexesha lobukoloniyali. Le-‘Golden Age’ idla ngokubiza ukuba kuqale kwakhona iinkolelo kunye nezenzo ‘zangaphambi kobukoloniyali’,ezazisoloko ziyila engqondweni kuphela ukusukela oko isizukulwana semillenarian sihlala singakhange sibe namava wexesha phambi kokufika kwabantu baseYurophu.